ラジオ英会話 2018/4/17 #ラジオ英会話 L12 説明型 受動態
17 火 Lesson12 説明型 受動態
I hope you’re enjoying two types of pronunciation, you know, in our program. American from Rosa, British from me. Listen carefully.
-He was attacked by a dog.
受動態は「be +過去分詞形」ではなく, 説明語句として過去分詞が使われただけの「説明型」の文です.
Chris, what is the grammatical meaning of attacked, exactly?
Well, I think, general feeling of a past participle is that be action of the verb is coming toward the subject, rather than going away from the subject. How do you feel, Rosa?
Exactly the subject is receiving the action.
Where’s John? He’s late for practice.
Oh, didn’t you hear? He’s at the hospital.
What? What happened to him?
He was attacked by a dog.
Really? Is he OK?
Well, the dog bit his left leg, but it’s not so serious.
I’m glad to hear that. I hope he gets well soon.
Don’t worry. He’ll be fine.
うん, 左脚をかまれたけれど, 大したことはないみたいだ.
late for 〜に遅れて
bit 噛み付いた。< bite かみつく
serious 深刻な, 真面目な
get well 回復する
+ Real grammar for communication
He was attacked by a dog.
Rosa, what does by generally mean?
The basic meaning of by is next to.
Great, Rosa. I think you’ll agree that by is perfect for this passive construction. Because the verb and agent are side by side.
by 前置詞、 となり、近く
What is the language most spoken all over the world?
+grammar in action
The shoplifter was caught by the security guard.
by a security guard
Chris, shoplifter is an interesting word. Why are the shoplifters called as such?
Yeah, you’re right. It is an interesting word. Well, it doesn’t mean the shoplifters are strong enough to lift up the shop.
No, that’s a surprise, isn’t it? Actually, although, you know, it’s not the most common use of the verb, to lift, it actually means to steal. And you can use it in the same sense of steel. And actually for example, some bands will say, They lifted that line from my song. So the shoplifter simply means somebody who steals things from a shop.
Sally is often teased by her two brothers.
傷つける injure, hurt の過去分詞を使う
Unfortunately, three people were badly injured in the crash.
in the crash
Rosa, why in the crash not by the crash?
Well, crash is not the originator of what happened, so it would be strange to say by the crash.
Yeah, that’s good, Rosa. Also the basic image of in is like a container. So we imagine the events, events which in this case are crash inside that event, something happened. So. therefor, the best way to say in the crash.
The passive construction is not that difficult, right, Chris?
Yes, I don’t know why, but many learners seem almost scared of the passive. You say the passive ?? freak out.
But it’s not so difficult if you approach it the way we’ve done in this lesson. It’s in fact easy-peasy, Rosa?
Exactly. Again I agree with you, everything you’ve just said.
I don’t believe this.
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