ラジオ英会話 2018/4/17 #ラジオ英会話 L12 説明型 受動態
17 火 Lesson12 説明型 受動態
I hope you’re enjoying two types of pronunciation, you know, in our program. American from Rosa, British from me. Listen carefully.
-He was attacked by a dog.
受動態は「be +過去分詞形」ではなく, 説明語句として過去分詞が使われただけの「説明型」の文です.
Chris, what is the grammatical meaning of attacked, exactly?
Well, I think, general feeling of a past participle is that be action of the verb is coming toward the subject, rather than going away from the subject. How do you feel, Rosa?
Exactly the subject is receiving the action.
Where’s John? He’s late for practice.
Oh, didn’t you hear? He’s at the hospital.
What? What happened to him?
He was attacked by a dog.
Really? Is he OK?
Well, the dog bit his left leg, but it’s not so serious.
I’m glad to hear that. I hope he gets well soon.
Don’t worry. He’ll be fine.
うん, 左脚をかまれたけれど, 大したことはないみたいだ.
late for 〜に遅れて
bit 噛み付いた。< bite かみつく serious 深刻な, 真面目な glad うれしい get well 回復する + Real grammar for communication He was attacked by a dog. Rosa, what does by generally mean? The basic meaning of by is next to. Great, Rosa. I think you'll agree that by is perfect for this passive construction. Because the verb and agent are side by side. by 前置詞、 となり、近く agent 動作主、文法 What is the language most spoken all over the world? 最も話されている言葉、過去分詞の形容詞的用法 中学で説明 +grammar in action 1). その万引き犯は警備員に捕まった. The shoplifter was caught by the security guard. caughtはcatch（捕まえる）の過去分詞. by a security guard Chris, shoplifter is an interesting word. Why are the shoplifters called as such? Yeah, you're right. It is an interesting word. Well, it doesn't mean the shoplifters are strong enough to lift up the shop. It doesn't. No, that's a surprise, isn't it? Actually, although, you know, it's not the most common use of the verb, to lift, it actually means to steal. And you can use it in the same sense of steel. And actually for example, some bands will say, They lifted that line from my song. So the shoplifter simply means somebody who steals things from a shop. shopを持ち上げる、盗むの意味 バンドが歌詞を盗む - サリーは2人の兄弟によくからかわれます. からかう tease Sally is often teased by her two brothers. 3).残念ながら3人がその事故でひどいけがを負った. 残念ながら、不運にも unfortunately 傷つける injure, hurt の過去分詞を使う Unfortunately, three people were badly injured in the crash. in the crash Rosa, why in the crash not by the crash? Well, crash is not the originator of what happened, so it would be strange to say by the crash. Yeah, that's good, Rosa. Also the basic image of in is like a container. So we imagine the events, events which in this case are crash inside that event, something happened. So. therefor, the best way to say in the crash. That's right. 事故は行為者でな、事故の中、 The passive construction is not that difficult, right, Chris? Yes, I don't know why, but many learners seem almost scared of the passive. You say the passive ?? freak out. But it's not so difficult if you approach it the way we've done in this lesson. It's in fact easy-peasy, Rosa? Exactly. Again I agree with you, everything you've just said. I don't believe this.
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